Based on a combination of a physical examination of the symptoms and diagnostic testing, a doctor will determine whether a patient has STEMI. A physician can conduct a physical examination and patient history evaluation after patients are in a stable medical condition and able to respond to questions.
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), to record the electrical signal and display activity of the heart as a wave pattern to check different heart conditions including STEMI diagnosis.
Imaging, the most common imaging test in those cases is echocardiography which uses ultra-high-frequency sound waves to create an image of your heart, including the internal structure.
There are more imaging tests that are recommended if the echocardiography is not enough. Those tests include:
Computer tomography (CT)
This test creates a very detailed, layer-by-layer image of the heart using X-rays and computer processing. Contrast or another type of chemical or dye that is administered to the blood is usually used for this test. By demonstrating where blood is flowing and where it isn’t, this color can assist identify any obstructions.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
In this test, photos are processed by a computer and high-resolution photographs of the heart are produced using an incredibly strong magnet.
When the heart muscle cells are damaged, they release a chemical substance called troponin. A troponin test is done to confirm the heart attack and to rule out the other conditions that cause ST-segement elevation.
Some conditions like hypertension and diabetes may mask the symptoms of heart attack, so, it’s recommended to have an annual checkup if you have one or more risk factors.
An individual can follow some steps to prevent himself from heart diseases, they should:
- keep a healthy weight
- Consume a healthy diet
- Practice moderate-intensity exercise for at least 150 minutes each week.
- Quit using tobacco products.
- Maintain good health, especially if they suffer from illnesses like diabetes, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol
- take their medication regularly
The chances of successful therapy are improved with speed.
Oxygen therapy can be used if needed. There are a variety of potential therapies for heart attacks, some of which may occur simultaneously or in succession.
Percutaneous coronary intervention is a procedure an interventionist does to identify and clear a blockage
Hospitals set a “door-to-balloon time” target for heart attack cases since PCI is time-sensitive.
It is also possible to insert a stent (a scaffold-like device) at the site of the obstruction during PCI. The stent will assist in keeping the artery open and preventing the development of new blockages.
Several drugs are frequently used early on in the treatment of a heart attack. They include:
- Beta-blockers, to slow down the heart and make it beat less forcefully. This impact prevents abnormal cardiac rhythms, lessens heart damage, and helps the heart muscle cope with a decrease in blood flow.
- Statins, to block cholesterol production in the liver and reduce blood cholesterol levels.
- Aspirin and antiplatelets, to aid in preventing blood clots from forming on arterial plaque and, if a stent is inserted during PCI, on the metal surface of the stent.
- Anticoagulants, to prevent blood cl
- this drug widens youotting in a different manner than Aspirin.r blood vessels and is particularly efficient at vasodilation.
- Pain killers, strong painkillers like morphine or others may be helpful for severe chest discomfort.
Coronary artery bypass grafting, also known as open-heart surgery, is required for the coronary arteries if they are severely blocked. A blood vessel from another part of your body is used by the surgeon to create a new blood vessel that gets around the obstruction during this treatment.