What is coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease is a very common type of heart
disease, it is the most common heart disease in the US.
Coronary heart disease can develop because of damaged or
diseased blood vessels that supply the heart with
blood,nutrients and oxygen.
The main causes of CAD is the cholesterol-containing plaques
in the coronary artery and the inflammation. These buildups
can narrow those arteries, decreasing the blood supply to the
heart. This may eventually result in chest discomfort (angina),
shortness of breath, or other signs and symptoms of coronary
artery disease. In case of complete blockage, a heart attack
may develop


Reduced blood flow may not create any symptoms at first. As
plaque builds up in your coronary arteries, the typical symptom
to appear is angina, or chest pain and discomfort.
Some people consider that the first sign that someone has CAD
is having a heart attack. These are the most common
symptoms of the coronary artery disease:
● Angina. A chest tightness or pain occurs on the middle or
left side of the chest. Physical or mental stress can trigger
the anginal, and it lasts for a few minutes and goes away.
The pain may be felt in areas other than the chest; like the
neck, arm, or back.
● Shortness of breath. Because of the lack of blood supply
to the heart, fatigue and shortness of breath will develop.
● Heart attack. As a result of the complete blockage of the
coronary artery; signs of heart attack can develop. Typical
signs and symptoms of heart attack are arm or shoulder
pain, crushing chest pain, shortness of breath and
There are some other symptoms that are not typical, but
are common in some patients. These symptoms tend to
happen to women more than men; like jaw and neck pain,
nausea, fatigue, and sometimes shortness of breath.

What causes coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease is caused by plaque buildup in the
walls of the coronary arteries. It’s thought that it begins with
damage to the coronary artery’s inner layer, it may be caused
by some factors, including hypertension, smoking,
hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, and
sedentary lifestyle.
The fatty deposits and cellular wastes begin to collect at the
injury site causing atherosclerosis. After that, the plaque may
rupture and trigger the release of platelets to repair the injury
site. The platelets tend to clump together at the injury site and
can block the artery, causing a heart attack.

Risk factors

Smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia,
obesity, physical inactivity, and stress are risk factors of CAD.
Eating unhealthy food that contains large amounts of sugar,
salt, saturated fats, and trans fats worsen the health and can
lead to a lot of heart diseases.
Family history has a significant role in the heart diseases, age,
also, is an important factor, as the risk of narrowing or damage
of the arteries increases when getting older.
It’s important to notice that men at more risk of CAD than
women, but the risk increases in women after menopause.


CAD can lead to some complications, including:
● Angina, because of the narrowing of the coronary arteries.
Angina may be triggered by physical activity.
● Heart attack, as a result to the heart artery blockage
● Heart failure, when the heart becomes too weak to pump
the blood all over the body. That’s because of the oxygen
and nutrients abbreviation.
● Arrhythmia, when the electrical impulses are interrupted
by the inadequate blood supply.

How is coronary artery disease diagnosed?

After taking the patient’s medical history, the doctor should
perform some diagnostic tests, including ECG,
echocardiogram, exercise stress test, nuclear stress test,
cardiac catheterization and angiogram, and cardiac CT scan

What is cardiac rehabilitation and recovery?

Cardiac rehab is a customised outpatient program of exercise
and patient education to improve the quality of life and protect
patients from any other cardiac event.
It is a program designed for the patient that includes physical
activity, medical and mental counselling, and health education
like following a healthy diet, taking medications on time, and
stopping bad life habits.
A team of specialists supervise the patient closely and monitor
his health and medical habits.


Modifying the lifestyle is the key for the prevention of coronary
artery disease. These are some tips to follow to improve the
heart health:
● Smoking cessation
● Eating more healthy food like vegetables, fruits, low-fat,
low-salt food, and whole grains.
● Stopping unhealthy food that contains saturated fats and
much sugars and salts.
● Weight control
● Increasing physical activity
● Controlling cholesterol level, blood glucose and blood
● Reducing stress


Usually, CAD treatment involves a lot of aspects, including:


Smoking cessation, improving dietary habits, exercise daily,
weight reduction and stress control promote healthier arteries.


To treat CAD, we can use various drugs, like:
1. Cholesterol-modifying medications, as statins, niacin,
fibrates, and bile acid sequestrants reduce the chances of
plaques buildup.
2. Aspirin, to reduce the tendency of blood clotting. It’s
important to consider bleeding or GIT disorders before
prescribing aspirin.
3. Beta blockers, to reduce the heart rate, blood pressure,
and the heart’s oxygen demand.
4. Calcium channel blockers, to improve chest pain and can
be used in combination with beta blockers.
5. Ranolazine, to help improve symptoms of chest pain and
can be used with beta blockers.
6. Nitroglycerin, in different dosage forms like tablets, sprays,
and patches can dilate the coronary arteries, thus
reducing the cardiac demand of blood and the chest pain.
7. ACE inhibitors and ARBs, to decrease blood pressure.

Procedures to restore and improve blood flow

● Some options to restore and improve blood flow are:
● Angioplasty and stent placement – percutaneous
coronary revascularization
● Coronary artery bypass surgery

Lifestyle and home remedies

To prevent any progression of the disease, the patient should
follow some steps. He should quit smoking, check their blood
cholesterol and blood pressure regularly, keep diabetes under
control, exercise more, reduce their weight, manage stress, and
practice cardiac rehabilitation.

Alternative medicine

Some alternative medicines are thought to be a contributing
factor to CAD, including fish and fish oil, flax and flaxseed oil,
and some sources of omega-3 fatty acids.
It’s important for patients to ask their doctor before taking any
medication or alternative medicine to improve their cardiac


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Grants Submission

Please read carefully the below criteria to make sure that you are eligible for the GIS Valves 2024 Educational Grant

Please read carefully the below criteria to make sure that you are eligible for the GIS Valves 2024 Educational Grant

1- Subspecialty related to GIS Valves 2024

You can submit the Grant Request if you specialize in the following Subspecialties:

  • Cardiologists
  • Interventionists
  • Cardiovascular Surgeons
  • Chest Diseases Specialists
  • Cardiac Surgeons

2- Professional Approval

  • A recommendation letter must be signed, stamped and approved by the department head in the hospital/ university.
  • It should be directed to the Gulf Intervention Society “GIS”
  • Updated Resume “CV” is required

3- Attendance

To be eligible for reimbursement, 80% of the Program Hours must be attended.

4- Additional Requirements (Increase your opportunity by following these steps using the most active social media account(s))

  1. Follow our social media accounts (Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn).
  2. Engage with our content by liking, sharing our posts, and tagging us using the official hashtag #GIS2024.
  3. Ensure that your post is public.

5- What Grant offers

  • Full Free Registration
  • Reimbursement of Maximum specified amount as per your destination, which covers accommodation for two (2) nights and economy flight tickets. (Reimbursement form to be sent after the approval of your submission


GIS Educational Grant submission deadline: 15 April 2024


For Any Inquires please contact PCO In Charge


Grants Submission

Please Read Carefully the Below Criteria to Make Sure that you are Eligible for the GIS Complications Cases Show 2024 Educational Grant


1. Subspecialty related to GIS Complications Cases Show 2024
You can submit the Grant Request if you specialize in the following specialties/subspecialties:
• Cardiology
• Interventional Cardiology
• Cardiovascular Surgery
• Chest Diseases

2. Professional Approval
Recommendation letter must be signed, stamped and approved by the department head in the hospital/ university/ institute

3. Attendance
80% of the Program Hours must be attended to be eligible to get the reimbursement

4. What Grant offers
• Full Free Registration
• Other covered elements to be determined based on the destination

5. Priority
• Submitting a case will be an added value for the grant selection.


GIS Educational Grant submission deadline: 1 February 2024

For Any Inquires please contact PCO In Charge


Cases Submission

  • All Cases should be presented in a PowerPoint and to be written in clear English
  • All presenting authors should have proficiency in English, to be able to present and respond to questions.
  • Cases must be submitted via the online Cases submission site.
  • You must receive the approval of all co-authors before putting their names on the Presentation.
  • All Cases must be submitted to an appropriate category for review based on the scientific content of the Case.
  • Titles:
    • Case titles are limited to 10 words or less.
    • The title should be dynamic and conclusive, rather than descriptive.
    • In general, you should capitalize the first letter of each word unless it is a preposition or article.
    • Titles should not be bold.
  • Authors: One person must be identified as the presenting author. The order of the authors can be modified at any time prior to the case deadline.
  • Content of the case: The case should contain a brief statement of (but not as subheadings):

    Patients Name must be hide from the Presentation

Important dates

  • Submission deadline: 10, Feb 2024
  • Submissions received after this deadline will not be considered. Presenters are not permitted to modify their cases after this date for reviewing purposes.
  • Notification of cases acceptance: 15, Feb, 2024

Presenter agreement

All presenters must agree to the following conditions when submitting a Case:

  • Affirm that the work has not been published (in print or electronically) elsewhere prior to the meeting.
  • Agree that if the case is accepted, GIS has permission to publish the case in printed and/or electronic formats.

Presenter changes and withdrawal policy

If you are unable to attend the meeting and wish to name a substitute presenter, please use the following guidelines:

  • The Presenting Author is the only author that may request a presenter change.
  • Substitute presenter must NOT be presenting another case at the meeting.
  • Substitution requests must be made PRIOR to the meeting.
  • Substitution requests should be sent by the presenting author to the below email:
  • Withdrawal policy: If authors wish to withdraw their case/s, they are requested to send a letter via e-mail to the above-mentioned email

Financial assistance

  • Limited financial assistance is available for this conference in the form of Virtual / In Person Assistance
  • Availability will be indicated during the Cases submission process.

Fawaz Almutairi

Saudi Arabia

Fawaz Portrait GIS president


President, Gulf Intervention
Society Interventional Cardiologists National Guard Hospital Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abdullah Shehab

United Arab Emirates

shehab portrait vice president GIS


Vice President, Gulf Intervention Society

Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine

Chairman of Education, EMA

Editor Chief New Emirates Medical Journal

Khalid Bin Thani



Treasurer, Gulf Intervention Society

Head of Scientific Committee, GIS Conference

Consultant Interventional Cardiologist

Bahrain Specialist Hospital

Manama, Bahrain

Khalid Bin Thani GIS

Mousa Akbar



General Secretary, Gulf Intervention Society

Head of Cardiology Unit, Al Sabah Hospital

Kuwait City, Kuwait

mousa Akbar GIS